Researchers from the UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at UCLA, and the National Institutes of Health have achieved a significant breakthrough in their study of how the brain acquires essential omega-3 fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and linolenic acid (ALA). Their research utilized a zebrafish model, which provided new and valuable insights into the process.
The findings of their study, published in Nature Communications, hold the potential to enhance our understanding of lipid transport across the blood-brain barrier and the disruptions in this process that can lead to birth defects or neurological conditions. Moreover, the zebrafish model may serve as a powerful tool for designing drug molecules capable of directly reaching the brain, opening up new avenues for therapeutic interventions.
Omega-3 fatty acids are considered essential for the body because they cannot be produced internally and must be obtained from dietary sources like fish, nuts, and seeds. Among these fatty acids, DHA is particularly critical for maintaining a healthy nervous system. Infants receive DHA through breastmilk or formula, and deficiencies in this fatty acid have been linked to learning and memory problems.
For omega-3 fatty acids to reach the brain, they must traverse the blood-brain barrier via a lipid transporter called Mfsd2a, which plays a vital role in normal brain development. However, until this study, scientists did not have a precise understanding of how Mfsd2a facilitates the transport of DHA and other omega-3 fatty acids.
The research team was successful in providing images of the zebrafish Mfsd2a’s structure, which bears similarity to its human counterpart. These images offer unprecedented insights into how fatty acids move across the cell membrane. The study also identified three compartments within Mfsd2a, hinting at distinct steps required for the movement and flipping of fatty acids through the transporter. This is in contrast to linear tunnel movement or movement along the surface of the protein complex.
These crucial findings shed light on the mechanisms by which Mfsd2a transports omega-3 fatty acids into the brain. Furthermore, they hold the potential to guide researchers in optimizing drug delivery through this route, which could have significant implications for treating neurological conditions and improving brain health.
The research does not only impact the understanding of Mfsd2a but also provides foundational knowledge about other members of the transporter family, known as the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). This insight could help in better understanding and regulating various important cellular functions.